| Post date: 2023/08/23 | 
This laboratory, as an electronic laboratory 1, is special for students of the Faculty of Physics and is implemented to complete the relevant course at the same time or after passing it.

This laboratory is held in the Faculty of Physics, Karaj Campus, located on the ground floor.


Experiments that are performed in the electronics laboratory:
1. Getting to know devices (electroscope, signal generator, power supply, etc.)
2. Study of passive electronic elements (resistor, capacitor, etc.)
3. Smoothies
4. Study of semiconductor diodes
5. Design and construction of power supply
6. Transistor (drawing characteristic curves)
7. One-stage transistor amplifiers
8. Amplifier of a common collector and common base class
9. Transistor classes
10. Multi-level amplifiers
11. Amplifier with feedback
12. Oscillation of structures (1)
13. Oscillation of structures (2)

Work description in the electronics laboratory
(special for physics students)
Electronics lab courses are taught in twelve sessions.
In the first session, we introduce the devices and tools that we deal with throughout the semester.
These devices and devices include the following:
1. Types of fixed and variable resistors (rheostat (PHYWE brand) or potentiometer) with different ohmic values
2. Types of ceramic and electrolytic capacitors with values of about pF or 220 μF
3. Fuses (small and large from A0.5 to A10)
4. Diode types (germanium, silicon (5822, 5402, 5408) and zener)
5. Types of transistors (107BC, 108BC, 109BC, 132AC, 180D, 324B25)
6. Electronic boards
7. Soldering machines and soldering wire
8. Types of connecting wires to help connect electronic elements in a circuit
9. Types of AC power supply (LEYBOLD maximum voltage up to v25)
10. Types of DC power supply (Iran Electronic Industries brand with the ability to create v150 and ARMA brand (305N-ps) up to v30 or A5 and SUPPLY POWER KEPCO brand up to v150)
11. Oscilloscope (as a device for observing the input and output waves of a 2-channel circuit and determining the effective voltage range, phase difference between input and output, frequency, periodicity, new wave, etc.)
The oscilloscope available in the laboratory is the Japanese LEADER brand, model 8022LS, which can be used up to a frequency of 20 MHz.
12. Generator signal types (as an AC power source with the pre-adjustment of the wave type, frequency and amplitude of the input wave)
The signal generators available in the laboratory are the American WAVETEK brand with a frequency range of 0.001-5 MHz and LEADER (0.01-10 MHz) and German PHILIPS (5108PM) in the range of 1-10 MHz.
13. Types of multimeters (from the LEADER brand with the ability to measure voltage resistance (maximum up to 500 V), current (maximum up to A3), diode test, determining the frequency and capacity of the capacitor and FLUKE brand in the range of Aμ to MA2000 or V1200 and hp brand (A3435) is used in the range of Aμ to A2 and V1200.)
In the continuation of the first session, a simple experiment (measurement of effective amplitude and voltage, phase difference, determination of periodicity with different instruments) will be performed for the scale of each of them and also to observe the results obtained from more accurate instruments.
In the second session, we will teach soldering and observe Lissajous curves.
From the third to the fifth session, almost the focus of the tests is on electricity topics.
From the sixth session, when the diode is introduced, we enter into a serious discussion of electronics. The characteristic curves of diodes (Si, Ge and Zener) are observed and drawn.
In the seventh session, we deal with rectification (half-wave and full-wave) and design a DC power supply.
From the eighth session to the end of the semester, we deal with transistors. Circuits related to transistor amplification, common emitter, common base and common collector are taught. Their amplification effect is observed and measured in voltage and current. Their input and output impedances are calculated so that students can acquire the necessary skills in the subsequent experiments related to multi-stage amplifiers.
In the following, transistor classes (A, B, AB and C) are observed and the effect of each of them is checked in circuits with AC power supply (signal generator) on and off to study the amount of energy loss in each class.
In physics amplifier circuits, the voltage (positive and negative) and current (negative and positive) of the input and output waves are compared, and students observe which circuits have noise or which have good thermal stability (an important parameter). have. At the end, the students, whose only power source is a DC generator, and with the help of transistors and other electronic elements, make an oscillator and extract AC current.

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